Paper 21-4



Мария Стоянова Дишкова
Университет „Проф. д-р Асен Златаров“, гр. Бургас


Maria Stoyanova Dishkova
University „Prof. d-r Asen Zlatarov“, Burgas

Abstract: The article provides a brief literary review of some concepts, which are more characteristic for the psychological sciences, but have adequate application in pedagogical practice. This is the „Pygmalion effect“, which means that expectations of students are high, and this will lead to higher academic results on their part. This concept is related to the so-called „self-fulfilling prophecies“ – the individual develops to the extent that we expect from her/him. Of course, these phenomena are extremely important for the atmosphere in the classroom, because in a sense they determine the teacher’s attitude towards students. An attempt is made to define other terms: „Galatea effect“ and „Golem effect“ as well.

Keywords: „Pygmalion effect“, positive interaction, „self-fulfilling prophecies“, „Galatea effect“, „Golem effect“, classroom


  1. Friedrich, A., Flunger, B., Nagengast, B., Jonkmann, K., Trautwein, U. (2015) Pygmalion effects in the classroom: Teacher expectancy effects on students’ math achievement. Contemporary Educational Psychology, Volume 41, April 2015, pp. 1-12,
  2. Niari, M., E. Manousou, A. Lionarakis (2016) The Pygmalion Effect in Distance Learning: A Case Study at the Hellenic Open University. European Journal of Open, Distance and e-Learning, Vol. 19, No. 1 – 2016, DOI : 10.1515/eurodl-2016-0003, pp. 36-52, available at:
  3. Chang, J. (2011) A Case Study of the „Pygmalion Effect“: Teacher Expectations and Student Achievement. International Education Studies, Volume 4, No. 1; Febr. 2011, pp. 198-201, available on 17/5/21 at: 1066376.pdf
  4. Ding, H. and Ch. M. Rubie-Davies (2019) Teacher expectation intervention: Is it effective for all students? Learning and Individual Differences, Volume 74, August 2019, 101751,
  5. Carmen, S. T. and V. M. Ghinea (2013) Pygmalion teaching style, is there a need for it? Management & Marketing Challenges for the Knowledge Society (2013) Vol. 8, No. 4, pp. 699-722.
  6. Jahan, F. and D. Mehrafzoon (2019) Effectiveness of Pygmalion Effect-based Education of Teachers on the Students’ Self-efficacy and Academic Engagement. Iranian Journal of Learning and Memory, 1 (4) p.p. 17-22, available at:
  7. Smilkova, Sm. (2021) Podgotovka za vazpriemane na muzika ot badeshtite uchiteli v nachalnoto uchilishte. International Journal „Knowledge“, Scientific Papers, Education, Volume 45.2, Institute of Knowledge Management, ISS N 2545-4439; ISS N 1857-923X, s. 471-476.
  8. Смилкова, См. (2021) Подготовка за възприемане на музика от бъдещите учители в началното училище. International Journal „Knowledge“, Scientific Papers, Education, Volume 45.2, Institute of Knowledge Management, ISS N 2545-4439; ISS N 1857-923X, с. 471-476.
  9. Smilkova, S. (2021) Preparation for perception of music by future teachers in primary school, Knowledge-International Journal, Vol. 45.2, p. 471-476, ISS N 2545-4439.
  10. Glenn Rowe, W. G. and J. O’Brien (2002) The Role of Golem, Pygmalion, and Galatea Effects on Opportunistic Behavior in the Classroom. Journal of Management Education, 2002, volume 26, pp. 612-628, DOI : 10.1177/1052562902238321. The online version of this article can be found at:
  11. McNatt, Br. D. and T. A. Judge (2004) Boundary conditions of the Galatea Effect: A field experiment and constructive replication. Academy of Management Journal, 2004, Vol. 47, No. 4, pp. 550–565, available at:


  1. Good, Th. L. (1987) Two Decades of Research on Teacher Expectations: Findings and Future Directions, published July 1, 1987, Journal of Teacher Education,, volume 38, isuue4,
  2. Trouilloud, D. O., Sarrazin, Ph. G., Bressoux, P. and J. Bois (2009) Running head: Moderation of teacher expectations effects. Relation between teachers early expectations and students later perceived competence in physical education classes: Autonomy-supportive climate as a moderator. Journal of Educational Psychology, 98, pp. 75-86, hal – 00389006, version 1, 27 May 2009.
  5. Rosenthal, R. and L. Jacobson (1968) Pygmalion in the Classroom. The Urban Review, pp. 16-20, available on 20/2/21 at:, p. 20.
  6. Boser, U., Wilhelm, M. and R. Hanna (2014) The Power of the Pygmalion Effect: Teachers Expectations Strongly Predict College Completion. Center for American Progress; available on 19-5-2021 at:
  8. Пак там.
  10. Пак там.
  11. Manzoni, J. F & J. L. Barsoux (1998) Inside the Golem effect: How bosses can kill their subordinates’ motivation. Available on 21/5/21 at:, p. 6-12.
  12. Пак там.
  13. Wang, M. and J. Cai (2016) The Application of Pygmalion Effect in Classroom Education. International Conference on Arts, Design and Contemporary Education (ICADCE 2016), p. 981, available at:
  15. Bandura, A. (1986) Social foundations of thought and action: A social-cognitive view. Englewoods Cliffs,

NJ: Prentice-Hall.